About PMx


PMx is a package of demographic and genetic analysis tools to assist with the management of breeding programs for wildlife species. PMx was developed by Jonathan Ballou (Smithsonian Institution/National Zoological Park), Robert Lacy (Chicago Zoological Society), and JP Pollak (Cornell University). The concepts and design of PMx benefitted immensely from input by the AZA Small Population Management Advisory Group, the EAZA European Population Management Advisory Group, the International Species Information System, and colleagues in zoos and conservation organizations around the world.

PMx is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

  • How to Cite

    Ballou, J.D., R.C. Lacy, and J.P. Pollak. 2010. PMx: software for demographic and genetic analysis and management of pedigreed populations. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois, USA.

    Please acknowledge SCTI in your reports and publications. Suggested wording:

    PMx software (Ballou et. al. 2010) is provided under a CreativeCommons Attribution-NoDerivatives International License, courtesy of the Species Conservation Toolkit Initiative (https://scti.tools).

  • Key References

    Lacy, R.C., J.D. Ballou, & J.P. Pollak. 2012. PMx: Software package for demographic and genetic analysis and management of pedigreed populations. Methods in Ecology & Evolution 3:433-437.

    Lacy, R.C. 2012. Extending pedigree­ analysis for uncertain parentage and diverse breeding systems. Journal of Heredity 103:197-205.


PMx is constantly changing. We fix bugs when they are identified, and when we have time to fix them. We also add new or improve on old analyses and features when we believe that they will enhance the management of populations, and we have the time to add the enhancements. We frequently make small changes to screen lay-outs, screen text, and file formats when we feel that the change will improve the program for users (and we have time). The PMx program will alert users on the opening screen if a newer version is available for downloading.

Note that we do not guarantee that all changes to the program have been documented here. In particular, we won’t list here many very minor changes made to the interface.

We also do not guarantee that all bugs in code or errors in algorithms have now been fixed. Reports of apparent bugs can be made at www.vortex10.org/Bug_Reports.aspx .

  • 16 January 2019

    A fixed made to the display of UniqueIDs in the Selection tab, and a fix made to the calculation of Certainty for individuals that are added to the selected population via the Selection tab.

  • 5 January 2019 (version 1.5.7)

    Various changes made to fix minor bugs.

    Work has begun on creating a PMxLite version!